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KANHANGAD

With its unique natural and cultural attractions Kasargod is
known as the land of god, forts, rivers, hills and beautiful beaches.

KANHANGAD is the major city of the northern-most district of Kerala,at Kasaragod Dt,. The district was formed on May 24, 1984, which known for coir and handloom industries. The name "KASARGOD" is derived from the word kusirakood meaning Nuxvomica forests (kanjirakuttom). Once It was one of the trade center for Arabs & Portuguese ...
Even now, "Thalangara Toppy" (
Cap wear by muslims) "Urru" (Wooden made Boat) are famous and well exporting items to the Arabian countries.
Fishing is a prime source of livelihood.
The district has water, forest, and mineral resources. It is flanked by the forest-covered Western Ghats in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west. Demarcating the north and the south are two rivers the Talapadi and the Trikaripur. Grey rocks and barren land amidst dense vegetation as well as calm lagoons visible through the coconut palms along the coastal bet lend this district a rare and distinct beauty. Kasaragod, having a 77 km coast line, is well known for its tobacco production. Places like Chithari, Pallikkara, Ajanoor, Punjavi, Kuniya, Kallyott, Pulloor, Periya are producing tobacco bulkly.

Not surprisingly, Kasaragod is poised for growth in the area of tourism. These days most travellers who land in Kasaragod head straight for Bekal, 14 km south on National Highway 17 . The beautiful Bekal beach with the historic and archaelogically significant

BEKAL FORT in the background is now being developed into a major beach resort. But for now, you can still savour the touch of history as you view the serene Lakshadweep sea from the tall observation towers of the fort, once huge cannon emplacements. The fort is perched atop a hill, thus giving a strategic view of the countryside. The largest and best-preserved fort in Kerala, it belonged in ancient times to the Kadampa dynasty and later came under the control of the Kolathiri Rajas. Still later it became part of the Vijayanagara empire. In the late 18th century Tippu Sultan captured it. An old mosque near the fort is believed to have been built by him. After he was overthrown by the British in 1789, the fort came under the control of the East India Company.

CHANDRAGIRI FORT, a large squarish one by the side of a river, is at Chandragiri, south-east of Kasaragod. It was built in the 17th century by Sivappa Nayaka of Bedanore. This too has a mosque nearby and also the ancient Kizhur State temple for whose annual festival the deity is taken Thrikkanaya temple at Bekal.

MALIK DEENAR JUMA MASJID, one of the main muslim pilgrim centre not only in the district but in the South India, is situated just 1 km. distance from the city. The great mosque situated at Thalangara, the most densly populated and the most enriched by the gulf money.

At Manjeswaram, a quaint little cashew-rich town at the northen tip of the district which is home to 15 mosques, is the memorial to Govinda Pai, the grand patriarch of Kannada literature.

ANANDASRAMAM : The famous Hindu shrine is situated just 1 km. distance from Kanhangad bus stand and railway station. People reached there seeking peace "SHANTI" Even from abroad. It is dedicated to Swamy who lived for poor.


MADIYAN KOOLOM Near Kanhangad at Manikoth is dedicated to Bhadrakali. During the temple festival in May/June and December/January, the ceremonious Bhutha dance is performed here.

The Sree Mahalingeswara at Adoor is located in pretty surroundings on the banks of the river Payaswini. In the temple is a Sanskrit inscription in Kannada script which scholars have ascribed to the Western Chalukya king Kirthi Varma II.

PARAPALLI MASJID, one of the muslim pilgrim centre in the district is situated 7 km. distance from Kanhangad city. The people from Muslim, Hindu & Christian visit here.


The Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (
CPCRI) which was established under the Madrass Government in 1916, is situated at Eriyal, Chowky. TxD coconut tree was developed first time in India by this institute.

TOURIST PLACES

BEKAL FORT, which stands on a 35 acre headland that runs into the Arabiansea, is the largest and best preserved fort in the State.

VALIYAPARAMBA (valiyaparamba) Is situated 30 km away from Bekal : This is perhaps the most scenic backwater stretch in Kerala. Fed by four rivers and dotted with numerous little islands. Valiyaparamba is fast turning into a much favoured backwater resort that offers enchanting boat cruises.

RANIPURAM VALLEY, The is known as KERALA OOTTY, while cool climate make look like Ootty, the forest, hills and valley give us a wonderful experience. It is good destination for Natural observation. It is situated 15 km away from Bekal, Transportation available from Kanhangad at dt:

Chandragiri Cruises: Boat trips to nearby islands and palm groves. Boarding point:Chandragiri bridge.

CHANDRAGIRI : Situated on the Chandragiri river, south east of Kasaragod town, this town is known for its large 17th century fort built by Sivappa Naik of Bedanore. The Chandragiri fort, one of a chain of forts built by the same ruler, offers a breathtaking view of the river and the Arabian sea. It is a vantage point to watch the sunset.


Topography :
Kasaragod district lies between 11-18’ & 12-48’ North latitudes and between 74-52’ & 75-26’ east longitudes. The district is marked off from the adjoining areas outside the state by the western ghats which run parallel to the sea and constitute an almost continuous mountain wall on eastern side. The Ghats dominate the topography. The coast line is fringed with low clips alternating with stretches of sand. A few miles to the interior, the scene changes and the sand level rises towards the barrier of the Ghats and transforms into low red laterite hills interspersed with paddy fields and coconut gardens.

The district is bounded in the East by the Western Ghats, in the west by the Arabian sea, in the north by South Kanara district of the Karnataka and the south by Kannur district.

Based on physical features, the district falls into three natural divisions- the low land bordering the sea, the mid land consisting of the undulating country and the forest–clad highland on the extreme east.

Climate :
The diversity of the physical features results in a corresponding diversity of climate. In the planes, the climate is generally warm. Though the mean maximum temperature is only around 90 degree F, the heat is oppressive in the moisture laden atmosphere of the planes. Humidity is very high and rises to about 90% during the south-west monsoon. The annual variation of the temperature is very small; the diurnal range is only about 10 degree F.

The south-west monsoon starts towards the end of May or the beginning of June, heralded by thunderstorms and holds till September when the rain fades out. October brings in the north-east monsoon. Dry weather sets in by the end of December. January and February are the coolest months of the year. March, April and May are very hot. The district has an average annual rainfall of 3500 millimeters. 

Forest
Kasaragod district has a forest area of 115.09 sq. kilometers falling under Wayanad Forest Division. Reserve forest stretches to 86.52 sq. kilometers and vested forest, to 28.57 sq. kilometers. It stretches in two ranges – Kasaragod and Kanhangad. The forest produces are Shegaibark, Sheakoy, Cardamom, Canes, Fibres etc. Sambar, the fastest deer, is seen in some areas. Wild Boars are a nuisance to the cultivators of hilly areas.

Rivers
There are 12 rivers in this district. The longest is Chandragiri (105 kms) originating from Pattimala in coorg and embraces the sea at Thalangara. The river assumes its name ‘Chandragiri’ from the name of the place of its source ‘Chandragupta Vasti’; where the great Maurya emperor Chandragupta, is believed to have spent his last days as a sage. The second longest river is Kariankod (64kms), across which a dam is being built at Kakkadavu. Shiriya (61kms), Uppala (50kms), Mogral (34kms), Chithari (25kms), Nileshwar (47kms), Kavayi (23kms), Manjeshwar (16kms), Kumbala (11kms), Bekal (11kms) and the Kalanadu (8kms) are the other rivers. These rivers provide ample irrigation facilities.

Agriculture :
Agriculture forms the mainstay of the population of the district. The soil in the natural divisions generally fall under three types. In the highland region it is laterite. In the mid land, the soil is a red ferruginous loam of latritic origin with an admixture of clay and sand. The coastal strip is sandy. Diversity of crops and heterogeneity in cultivation are the key notes of agriculture here.

The eastern tract comprises of forests and hilly areas. The forests comprises of a a variety of timber with Teak and other plantations. The hilly areas are mostly cleared and put to private cultivation; the important crops being rubber, cashew and ginger. In the skeletal plateau areas, cashew trees are cultivated, while in some patches, arecanut, pepper and cocoa are grown. In the coastal tract paddy, coconut, arecanut, cashew, tobacco, vegetables and tapioca are cultivated

 

Parliamentary Constituency :
Kasaragod

Assembly constituencies:
Manjeshwaram
Kasaragod

Uduma
Hosdurg
Thrikkarippur.

Blocks & Panchayaths

Nileshwaram Block

Kayyoor-Cheemeni Cheruvathur  East Eleri  Kinanoor-Karindalam  Nileshwaram 
Padanna Pilikkode Trikkarippur  Valiyaparambu West Eleri

Kanhangad Block

Ajanoor Balal Kodombeloor
Madikkai Pallikkara Panathadi
Pulloor Periya Uduma  

 

Villages at Kanhangad Block

Uduma Pallikkara Panayal Pulloor Periya
Chithari Ajanoor Balal Malom Panathadi
Kallar Beloor Thayannoor Hosdurg Kanhangad
Madikkai Ambalathara Nileshwaram Perol Cheruvathur
Pilikkode Padanna Trikaripur south Trikaripur north Kodakkad
Cheemeni Kayyoor Kinanoor Parappa Karindalam
Narkilakkad Bheemanadi Chittarikkal Palavayal  

 

FACTS & FIGURES

District Area 1,992 sq. km.
District Population (1991) 1,071,508
Male 5,28,803
Female 5,42,705
Growth of population (1981 to 1991) 22.67 %
Density of Population 546 per sq. km.
Literacy 70.18 %
Altitude 0 ft. (Sea level)
Temperature 27.35(annual mean,in degrees Celsius)
Rainfall 344 cm. (ann.)
Clothing Tropical cottons
Tourist season August to March

Kasaragod has a railway station which is linked to several important towns. Motorable roads connect Kasaragod to towns in Kerala and neighbouring Karnataka.

Language : As per the reports of the 1981 census, 72 % of the total
population are speaking Malayalam. The rest speak Kannada, Thulu,
Maratti, Urdu, Tamil and Hindustani.

Municipalities : Kasaragod , Kanhangad
Assembly constituancies : Manjeshwaram , Kasaragod , Uduma ,
Hosdurg ,Thrikkarippur.
Taluks : Kasaragod , Hosdurg.

District Capital Kasaragod
District Area 1,992 sq. km.
District Population (1991) 1,071,508
Male 5,28,803
Female 5,42,705
Growth of population (1981 to 1991) 22.67 %
Density of Population 546 per sq. km.
Literacy 70.18 %
Altitude  0 ft. (Sea level)
Temperature 27.35C (Annual Mean)
Rainfall 344 cm. (ann.)
Clothing Tropical cottons
Tourist season August to March
Language Malayalam, Kannada,Tulu, Konkani
Nearest Airport (Domestic) Mangalore ( 60 Kms)
Nearest Airport (International) Karipur ( 220 Kms)
Kochi (420 Kms)



PEOPLE :

The people in the district have, as is the case in other parts of the state, distinctiveness in personal appearance, marked by fairness of complexion, regularity of features, clean habits and simple life. Though at present the percent of literacy is lower when compared to other districts of Kerala, there has been an increased awareness and interest in education these days.
In a religion-wise breakup, though the district is dominated by Hindus, there is a sizable percent of Muslims in this region.
ISLAM had spread here even in the days of Prophet Mohammed (p.b.u.h). It has been established that Malik Ibn Deenar had arrived in Kasaragod in the earlier period of Islam and Malik Deenar Great Juma Masjid at Thalangara is named after him.  Christianity has also rooted here lately, mainly by the settlers in the eastern hilly areas. The first group of settlers came from south Kerala in 1943 and since then, they contributed to the development of these places. Major settlement areas are Rajapuram, Thomapuram, Palavayal, Vellarikundu, Cherupuzha, Bandadka, Pulingom, Panathady etc. 

Major divisions in the Hindus include Brahmins, Nairs, Ambalavasis, Thiyyas and Kammalas. Thiyyas in the northern parts of the districts are known as Belichapad. The sub-divisions of Nair community are Nambiar, Menon, Kurup, etc. Kammalas are artisans like Tattan (goldsmith), Perumkollan (blacksmith), and Asaris (carpenters). Brahmins consists of Bhat, Puninchitaya, Kukkillya, Ballullaya, Kadambulithaya, Kakunnaya etc.

Cherumas, Mavilas, Parayas etc are the scheduled castes. They are mainly agricultural labourers. The scheduled tribes consist of Koragars of Kasaragod Taluk, Marattis of Hosdurg and Kasaragod taluks and Adiyans of Eravas.

The cosmopolitan outlook and character of the people in the district are because of the contact they had with the trade missions that used to visit this place years back. The Hindus, Muslims and Christians lives side by side, each influencing and getting influenced by the culture of the other. 

POPULATION
 

Population Figures - 1991
Block Total Male  Female
Kanhangad 2,36,705 1,15,908 1,20,797
Kasragod 2,01,948 1,01,125 1,00,823
Nileswar 2,37,364 1,15,414 1,21,950
Manjeswar 2,88,200 1,43,547 1,44,653

Municipalities
     
Kasaragod 50,126 24,887 25,239
Kanhangad 57,165 27,922 29,243
Total 10,71,508 5,28,803 5,42,705

 

The district is comparatively backward in education. Kasaragod doesn’t have many standard colleges and schools.  As per the data available, the network of schools and colleges and other educational institutionsb in the district is as below.
 
Institution          Govt.      Govt Aided       Unaided      Total
Lower Primary School 138 110 5 253
Upper Primary Schooll 72 73 1 146
High Schools 77 31 1 109
Colleges 2 2 - 4
Engineering Colleges 1 - - 1
Teacher Training Schools 3 - - 3
Special schools for the Blind - 1 - 1
Industrial traing Institute 1 - - 1
Industrial Training Centres - - 4 4
Bed Training Centre 1     1

There are two Central Schools and one Navodaya Vidyalaya in this district.

Literacy

The saksharatha programme of The Government was well received and due to the zealous campaign conducted by the people, the level of literacy had a marked improvement. As per available statistics, the district has 7,47,903 literates of t which the bifurcation id 3,95,620 males and 3,52,283 females.

 

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